Blooms – a strategic territory game for two players



Note: you can play Blooms against an AI, using Stephen Tavener’s AiAi system (download here). To run it, you’ll need Java and you may need to change your security preferences. You’ll get a bunch of zipped files in the download. The file to run is “ai ai.jar”. Once opened, load Blooms by going to: File –> Choose Game, then select Blooms.mgl. You can change the AI settings from the AI menu. 

Blooms is a territory game for 2 players, played with stones on a hexagonal board. I recommend new players start on this board (PDF); only try larger boards after gaining experience. Each player owns stones of two different colors (so there are 4 colors in all).


  • Bloom: a bloom is an entire group of connected stones on the board of the same color. A single stone (unconnected to others of the same color) is also a bloom.
  • Fenced: a bloom is fenced when there are no empty spaces adjacent to any of the bloom’s stones.
  • Territory: a lone empty space or entire connected group of empty spaces is said to belong to a player’s territory if all stones adjacent to all empty spaces in that group belong to that player.
In the above example, there are 2 blooms of each color (8 total). None are fenced, since each has at least one adjacent empty space. One player plays red-yellow, the other grey-black. Red-yellow is the only player with territory (in the upper right). No other groups of empty spaces are adjacent to only one player’s stones.


  1. To start, Player 1 places a stone of either of her colors on any empty space.
  2. From then on, starting with Player 2, the players take turns.
    • On your turn, you must either pass your turn, or place 1 or 2 stones on empty spaces. If you place 1 stone, it may be either of your colors. If you place 2 stones, you must place both your colors.
    • You must place your stones such that, at the end of your turn (after you’ve captured enemy blooms – see below), none of your blooms is fenced.
    • After placing your stones, capture all fenced enemy blooms. Return the captured stones to your opponent.
  3. The game ends when one player resigns or when both players pass consecutively. In the latter case, your score is the number of stones you have on the board plus the number of spaces in your territory. The player with the highest score wins. In the event of a tie, the player who passed first wins.

Quick Comments

There’s a story behind this design, but I have to save the telling for another day.

As far as I can tell, Blooms is soft-finite on boards large enough so that at least one living Bloom is inevitable. A soft-finite game is one where cyclical positions are possible but will only happen if neither player is trying to win.

Below is a slowed-down version of the gif at the top of the page, in case you want to scrutinize the example game more. In that game, one player plays grey-black, the other red-yellow. Grey-black wins narrowly (close games are rare on small boards, so far – it’s more common for one player to collapse entirely).

As you can see, you can have a significant material advantage and still lose.

One thing you can’t see is that the mix of colors at the end varies from game to game. Games played side-by-side can look pretty. I like that.


Thanks to…

5 thoughts on “Blooms – a strategic territory game for two players

  1. Something I find oddly pleasing about the 3 Definitions.
    Bloom is defined in terms of one colour.
    Territory is defined in terms of two (allied) colours.
    Fenced is defined in terms of four colors (i.e. all the colors).

    3 notes:
    The Three Definitions sounds like a really nerdy music trio.
    Nick, your current headshot is terrible.
    I have a really bad memory (and can’t remember the 3rd note I had in mind).

    1. Why thank you! I guess I need a new head shot. What’s bad about this one? (so I don’t repeat the same mistake)

      1. You seem to consist entirely of forehead. That may be accurate, or the look you’re going for. But you could add a smile, fiendish grin, or other endearing expression.

        Blooms is a very impressive design, especially in terms of decisions/rules ratio. There’s a lot behind that forehead!

      2. Unfortunately, I DO consist almost entirely of forehead. But yeah, I can see that my expression maybe isn’t the greatest. I’ll work on it.

        And thanks very much about regarding Blooms. I haven’t expressed much of an opinion about it here, but I do have one. I’ve been saving it for a designer diary to be written later, but suffice it here to say: the game is very important to me, and I’m glad you see something in it.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s